Who are Erzya and Moksha and how are they different?

Plot Direct line with the President of the Russian Federation June 30, 2021

On June 30, Russian President Vladimir Putin leads another direct line. Responding to the question of why Ukraine is not included in the list of hostile countries, the head of state said he sees Russians and Ukrainians as one people. Putin compared the Russians and Ukrainians to the Jews settled all over the planet.

Mordovka. End of the 18th century. Photo: Commons.wikimedia.org

“ Black people come from Africa to Israel '' and still Jews. And some speak Yiddish, not Hebrew. And always & mdash; Jewish people. We have Mordovians, there is Erzya, Moksha. They all consider themselves to be Mordvins. They speak the language of a group. Erzya and Moksha do not understand each other. Their languages ​​differ more than Russian and Ukrainian. But they value unity. Why? They are smart, and they understand that fragmentation weakens an ethnicity ',' ' said the president.

What do we know about the Mordovian ethnicity? & nbsp;

The origins of the Mordovian ethnicity can be traced back to the period when the ancient Mordovian tribal family began to take shape, which received in the first millennium AD. renamed under the ethnic name Mordens, Mordvichi, Mordva. In Russian chronicles, Mordva was first mentioned in the list of peoples of the Middle Volga region. The origin of this name is associated with words from Iranian languages, which mean 'man, man.'

The very name “ Mordovians '' has long been used by the Mordovian population and is used to refer to two groups initially close to each other in language and culture, but nevertheless having different ethnic identity groups & mdash; moksha and erzya. The Erzya and Moksha languages ​​are similar, but have serious lexical and grammatical differences. & Nbsp;

In the Republic of Mordovia, Moksha is mainly settled in the western regions, and Erzya & mdash; to the east, in the basin of the Moksha and Sura rivers, as well as the Volga and Belaya.

Moksha. Photo: Commons.wikimedia.org/Numulunj pilgae

Who are Moksha? & Nbsp;

Mokshane, Moksha & mdash; an ethnic group of Mordovians speaking one of the two Mordovian languages ​​of the Volga-Finnish subgroup of the Finno-Ugric branch. The group was formed in II & ndash; IV centuries. n.m. e. The first mention of Moksha is found in the 13th century sources & mdash; in the notes of the Flemish traveling brother Wilhelm de Rubruck among the peoples conquered by Genghis Khan, the Moxel people are named. In the 14th century chronicles, Moksha is mentioned as one of the peoples of the Middle Volga region conquered by the Tatars. The name of the ethnicity is associated with the name of the Moksha River, which flows through the original territory of the Mordovian-Moksha settlement.

Mokshan is attributed to the Uralic race, within which the inhabitants of Moksha are attributed to the sub-Ural subtype. Mokshas often have dark, Mongoloid-like skin. They are genetically close to their neighbors: Mari, Tatars, Tchouvaches.

Most of the Mokshans are Orthodox Christians, there are also Lutherans and followers of the traditional religion (Mokshen Koy). A distinct ethnic group of Mokshans is the karatai living in the Kamsko-Ust & # 39; insky region of the Republic of Tatarstan. They speak the Tatar dialect with a mixture of the Mokshan language.

According to the 1989 census, 180,000 Mokshans lived in the Republic of Mordovia, the rest live outside its borders, in various regions and republics of Central Russia, the Volga region and Siberia. According to the 2010 All-Russian Population Census, 4,767 people called themselves Mokshans.

According to the researchers, the writer and director had Vasily Shukshin moksha roots. His paternal (Shukshins) and maternal (Popovs) ancestors from the village of Tolkayevka, where before the revolution 95% of the inhabitants were Mordovians-Moksha.

Erzya. Photo: Commons.wikimedia.org/Jurnaliste d & # 39; Erzianj

Who are the crazy people? & Nbsp;

Erzya & mdash; ethnic group of Mordovians. The first mention of Erzians is contained in a letter from the Khazar Khagan Joseph (X century). According to ethnographers, the origin of the word 'erzya' remains unclear, but the most acceptable hypothesis as to its borrowing from Iranian languages ​​(compare to Old Persian ar & scaron; a “ male, husband; bull, boar; hero, hero ''). & nbsp;

In the early Middle Ages, the Erzya resisted the Khazars, Pechenegs and Polovtsians. It is believed that Nizhny Novgorod was founded on the site of a former settlement in Erzya, and the name Ryazan comes from the distorted Erzya word 'Erzya', which means' inhabitant ''. In the 13th century, unlike the Mokshans who submitted to the Golden Horde, the Erzya retreated north, hiding in dense forests. In the 17th century, Erzya existed in the Urals, in the Southern Urals and Trans-Volga regions. & Nbsp;

Erzyan belongs to the Caucasian race, of the White Sea-Baltic type. Erzans differ from Mokshans in their higher stature, Caucasian features, and the predominance of light shades of hair and eyes. By physique, the Mokshans are stronger, stockier, and Erzya & mdash; slim and tall.

Erzya has long held various pagan beliefs. They believed in the existence of a single god Ineshkipaz & mdash; the creator of all things. & nbsp;

According to the 2010 census, the number of Erzyens is 57,008 people. One of the representatives of the people is Natalia Vodianova , who has Erzya roots. The famous Soviet singer Lidiya Ruslanova also has Erzian roots on the maternal side.

Источник aif.ru

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