USE-2021: What Claims Are For Unified State Consideration?

Weekly “Arguments and facts” № 25. Difficult task. Where does the education come from? 06/23/2021

What claims are made to the Unified State Exam and is it time to go back to the Soviet knowledge test

In 2001, a unified state exam was introduced in & nbsp; parts of Russia on an experimental basis. And & nbsp; all these 20 years on & nbsp; the USE debate does not calm down. And & nbsp; recently, Deputy Chairman of the State Duma Committee on & nbsp; Education and & nbsp; Science Maxim Zaitsev expressed himself very categorically: “ The review was not justified. '' So, will the Russian school return to the Soviet system of testing and assessing knowledge?

High stakes exam

So what's the fate of the Unified State Review? And & nbsp; the most that this form of knowledge test has provided & nbsp; & ndash; good or bad ?

In & nbsp; answers & nbsp; & ndash; cross, and & nbsp; knowledge & nbsp; & ndash; nothing?

Deputy Chairman of the State Duma Pyotr Tolstoy Recently spoke out for the cancellation of the Unified State Exam: “ The testing system has led to the & nbsp; the fact that the older & shy; graders 2 & ndash; 3 years are trained with & nbsp; filling in machine-readable texts, so that they put the crosses correctly, and & nbsp; subjects that should be taught are not taught. It is not true that the Unified State Exam helps talented kids in the province get into college. In order for a child to enter a university, a tutor is required. In Soviet times there was & nbsp; 4 times fewer students, and & nbsp; the quality of education was & nbsp; 4 times higher. The deputy calls for a return to the practice of written and oral exams on the type of those that existed in the Soviet school. Generally speaking, the State Duma regularly raises the question of the annulment of the USE. And & nbsp; in the early years, when this type of examination was gradually introduced across the country, prominent scientists opposed it.

However, among teachers, students, and parents, there are far fewer opponents of USE. The teacher of Russian language and & nbsp; literature of & nbsp; Mineralnye Vody Tatyana Boyko suggests to those who believe that the Unified State Exam & nbsp; & ndash; this is a guessing game, and the & nbsp; guardians train children on the & nbsp; choosing the correct answers, just open the real version of the exam (they can be found on the FIPI website, in the print collections). “ You will understand that it is impossible to train someone who does not understand the essence of the matter, & nbsp; & ndash; she says. & nbsp; & ndash; At first the exam was very flawed. Now there are no more guesses even in the test portion of & nbsp;, detailed written answers are required. & # 39; & # 39;

I agree with & nbsp; and & nbsp; the head of the department of the Center for the Development of Educational Strategy, Moscow State University. Lomonosov Constantine Ziskin : “ The nightmares that existed around the Unified State Exam 10 years ago (draining responses to the internet and total cheating, USE tourism, when kids a few months before & nbsp; The exam have been transferred to remote rural schools and others. & nbsp; & nbsp; & ndash; Ed.), have now been overcome. It's clear that when a new thing is introduced, something goes wrong. The 'childhood illnesses', which were in the & nbsp; USE, in & nbsp; including reckless tasks and & nbsp; erroneous, are more or less treated. We are learning to work with it. And & nbsp; now there is not a single documented fact that the influence of the review has been negative. It is ridiculous to say that the kids got dumber after its introduction. And how did you measure the level of stupidity? Where are the numbers, the arguments? And & nbsp; since they are not there, this is a conversation of the & nbsp; series “ in grandmothers at the & nbsp; shop. & # 39; & # 39; I agree, there are a lot of complaints about the organization of the Unified State Review. But dynamics show that these processes are improving. & # 39; & # 39; & Nbsp;

On the review & ndash; in good conscience and without the omniscient Yandex and Google. Photo: AGN Moscow

3 exams instead of 20

Nevertheless, despite the lack of evidence of the harmfulness of the exam, there are regularly those who propose back to & nbsp; soviet graduation system and entrance exams.

“ But then let's at least decide where we'll go back, & nbsp; & ndash; continues K. Ziskin. & nbsp; & ndash; Are we going back to the late 1980s, the late 1960s? Or maybe in the 19th century gymnasium? By the word & nbsp; there were a lot of positive things in & nbsp; latest. And & nbsp; would always be nice to explain why you have to go back. When I have finished my studies in & nbsp; 1989 I first had to pass 7 & ndash; 8 exams at & nbsp; at school, and & nbsp; then 3 & ndash; 4 others in & nbsp; university. To & nbsp; while, if a candidate in a & nbsp; particular university did not pass the competition, so he could not transfer his exams from one university to another, and & nbsp; had to start over again. My father, who graduated from the 444th Moscow School of Mathematics in & nbsp; 1965 (one of the best, to put it mildly), managed to pass 16 entrance exams over the summer, not counting the school ones . By & nbsp; four in & nbsp; several universities & nbsp; & ndash; Baumanku, Phystech (in two different faculties), Moscow State University Mechanical and Mathematics Evening and & nbsp; t. e. Now the school's graduates pass 3 & ndash; 4 exams (if you wish, you can also & nbsp; more), the results of which can be submitted to a & nbsp; competition for & nbsp; admission in & nbsp; five universities, and & nbsp; in each & nbsp; & ndash; for & nbsp; several specialties (at least two, maximum ten & nbsp; & ndash; depends on the university).

All the developed countries of the world & nbsp; & ndash; United States, Great Britain and & nbsp; many others & ndash; have an analogue of the exam. And & nbsp; when in our country this initiative was introduced 20 years ago by the then Deputy Minister of Education Viktor Bolotov (now & nbsp; & ndash; Scientific Director of the Center for Monitoring the Quality of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics), he and & nbsp; his associates were guided by this model. Of course, everywhere there are historical features of the final attestation of schoolchildren. But in general and & nbsp; in general, this is a global trend. & Nbsp;

The main thing is to put the crosses correctly. Photo: AGN Moscow

Delicate flaws

The main thing & nbsp; & ndash; The Unified State Exam sometimes reduced the degree of corruption when entering universities. Yes, you can hire a tutor to coach your child to the Unified State Exam. But it will not be able to influence the result of the exam & nbsp; & nbsp; & ndash; paint on the scores, suggest the correct answer to the & nbsp; entrance exams, as was the case before, when the same tutors were seated at the & nbsp; university admissions office & nbsp; helped register the right children. And the results of graduation exams were often biased. If the teacher loves the student, this is a situation. Otherwise & nbsp; & ndash; another. And & nbsp; the notes on & nbsp; these reviews could not be rechecked or challenged. And & nbsp; Now if, say, a graduate thinks they've been given less points on USE than they deserve, you can go for it. to appeal and & nbsp; trying to get justice.

Of course, there is now also a corruption mechanism to enter universities via the Olympics. There is also a nifty system with targeted recruitment, when under the guidance of regional authorities, health institutions, education, large companies, applicants can enter university through a separate competition with & nbsp; Lower usage scores. One way or another, the workarounds have been trampled on, but they are fewer and there are fewer workarounds. enjoy it & nbsp; & ndash; more difficult.

Konstantin Ziskin is convinced that the scores & nbsp; USE should not be used to judge & nbsp; children's knowledge level.

“ I don't understand why some people think that if a student is preparing for exams in & nbsp; physics, chemistry, mathematics, Russian language, etc. etc., then suddenly he will know these topics better, & nbsp; & ndash; he asks himself. & nbsp; & ndash; We are told: here, they say, children learn the exam and & nbsp; while they don't know anything. And & nbsp; who checked it out? If a child wants to learn something, he will learn it that way, without exam. And & nbsp; if you don't want to, or, for example, you have a bad teacher in & nbsp; in school, then the exams won't help you. USE, entrance exams & nbsp; & ndash; this is a competitive process. They do not draw any line under & nbsp; what knowledge the child received in 11 years at & nbsp; school. There are many competitions, for example a singing competition. The man got ready, came, sang. Did not work & nbsp; & ndash; went to & nbsp; next year. And & nbsp; depends a lot on the competition under & nbsp; the name of the exam. It's not for nothing that it's called the high stakes review. Complain about & nbsp; the subject of what was better before, rather of & nbsp; area of ​​psychological problems. It is hardly possible to enter the same river twice. You have to move forward, and & nbsp; not back. And & nbsp; to separate the review as an idea and & nbsp; how successfully it has been implemented. & Nbsp;

Pass the Unified State Exam in Russian language. Photo: AGN Moscow

To remember

In & nbsp; this meaning, the question “ how can you improve the exam? & # 39; & # 39; seems much more constructive.

“ 20 years & nbsp; & ndash; It's a long enough time to figure out how to conjure any business, & nbsp; & ndash; states the director of the Institute for Educational Development of the Graduate School of Economics of the National Research University Irina Abankina. & nbsp; & ndash; Now it is already clear which side the USE needs to turn to in order to modernize it. Today's Unified State Exam focuses exclusively on subject knowledge. It is necessary to give graduates the opportunity to take exams not only in school subjects. Let's say they can demonstrate computer or financial knowledge, for example, in the form of their own development, a project that builds on knowledge of multiple topics. And & nbsp; no longer take separately company & timid; knowledge or physics, biology. So far, the exam does not take into account the competence of the 'four K's'. & nbsp; & ndash; critical thinking, creativity, communication skills and & nbsp; collaboration (collaboration). And & nbsp; is just a person's ability to make decisions, compare options and nbsp; justify these decisions.

The second fundamental point & nbsp; & ndash; to give graduates the opportunity to take the exam repeatedly on & nbsp; throughout the 11th grade in & nbsp; independent centers. They can be organized and & nbsp; on the basis of schools. The person feels prepared, & nbsp; & ndash; then he can go and & nbsp; hand over. If something didn't work & ndash; prepare again and resume. And & nbsp; then choose the best results for & nbsp; admission to & nbsp; university. Now the review & ndash; like the last time in life. Everyone walks in formation in & nbsp; one day and & nbsp; write. As a result, the stress level is such that many score much lower than on & nbsp; who really know the subject. The results are largely determined by the randomness & nbsp; & ndash; I felt bad that day, worried, the sun was shining in the window, suffocation, heat and & nbsp; t. It is necessary to transfer the examination from a stressful procedure to an ordinary and measured procedure. At & nbsp;, we like to say that the review & nbsp; & ndash; This is a high stakes exam. You don't need those high stakes. Give guys the chance to try, try, fix the result. We are not playing for relegation. You don't have to go through the playoffs all the time. There is a need to replace the exam with transparent digital technologies and & nbsp; understandable. & # 39; & # 39; & Nbsp;

'Distant' Do learners start from knowledge?

Russian pupils of the ninth grade of & nbsp; this year failed at the EMB in & nbsp; mathematics. “ Fail '' number
for the review increased sharply in & nbsp; compared to & nbsp; 2019 & nbsp; g. Is this reflected in the & nbsp; academic performance and & nbsp; the depth of knowledge of distance learning, or isn't that the only reason?

Instead of courses & nbsp; & ndash; cabins

The failure of the & nbsp; exam in & nbsp; mathematics is reported by many areas. Thus, in & nbsp; Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug in & nbsp; this year the number of 'unsuccessful' on the first attempt to switch the OGE to & nbsp; mathematics passed to & nbsp; 25%, and & nbsp; in some schools in the district & nbsp; & ndash; up to & nbsp; 50%. By & nbsp; for example, in & nbsp; Surgut, the review of & nbsp; math failed 1700 & nbsp; people. Fortunately, the results of the recovery were much better. Some educators are inclined to blame the & nbsp; geometry included in the exam for & nbsp; poor grades. Others think it was the effect of the distance.

“ Written homework, lessons not learned … In person you always see the student's eyes and & nbsp; are ready to come & nbsp; help, and & nbsp; from a distance, the attitude towards & nbsp; the study of the child himself and of & nbsp; his parents, understanding that here and & nbsp; ; now the future is decided And & nbsp; not everyone has such an understanding, & nbsp; & ndash; complains a math teacher from & nbsp; Khanty-Mansiysk Irina Kurkovskaya .

In remote areas of the Kaliningrad region. the remote is considered a bad dream. The teachers literally had to spend the night at the & nbsp; work to prepare the homework written for & nbsp; each class. Twice a week, school bus drivers delivered packages with 'homework'. in & nbsp; villages where there is no internet. & nbsp;

“ Everyone was as sophisticated as they can get, & nbsp; & ndash; told in spring 2020 & nbsp; g. journalists from 'AiF' Irina Uprivanova of & nbsp; Filippovka. & nbsp; & ndash; I & nbsp; works at & nbsp; Pravdinsk, where there is internet. I took notebooks with & nbsp; lessons with & nbsp;, taken photos and & nbsp; sent them to the teacher for & nbsp; check. The other parents had to storm the bus stop, where they brought packages with chores from school.

In the village of Soldatovo, in the Pravdinsky district, the children went to “ catch the Internet '' at the edge of the field, fortunately, not far from the Polish border. In warm weather, under the oaks, they set up a hut, immediately did their homework.

“ During the time of the retreat, the children fell behind. Judging by & nbsp; my schoolgirls & ndash; one in & nbsp; 5th, another in & nbsp; 8th grade, & nbsp; & ndash; said the village chief Alexandre Selin . & nbsp; & ndash; A & nbsp; Kaliningrad, the system hung, what about & nbsp; us! At first, the children were happy & nbsp; & ndash; no need to study. And & nbsp; when classes have resumed and & nbsp; started to catch up, the joy soon subsided. History, biology can still be read and & nbsp; understood, but & nbsp; with algebra the german language will not work. There are a lot of loopholes, the old ones cling to the new. One can only sympathize with those who are now passing the exams. & # 39; & # 39;

Did you forget how to study?

“ Alas, the problem of school inequality & nbsp; & ndash; staff and & nbsp; digital & nbsp; & ndash; registered, & nbsp; & ndash; declares the principal of the Moscow school number & nbsp; 109, Honored Professor of the Russian Federation Evgeny Yamburg. & nbsp; & ndash; When the children of the villages of & nbsp; are forced to run to mobile towers to get tasks, & nbsp; & ndash; this is idiocy. The digital divide must be closed immediately. This decision has already been made. It is clear that in some schools the toilets are still in the yard. But the internet is more important now. & # 39; & # 39; & Nbsp;

However, according to the teacher's opinion, based on the results of the OGE it is not necessary to judge all schools and all students with stroke. “ It all depends on & nbsp; how the work was organized at the & nbsp; school during the pandemic, & nbsp; & ndash; continues E. & nbsp; Yamburg. & nbsp; & ndash; For example, my graduates from last year did better on their exams and received more medals than usual. There are such children & nbsp; & ndash; relatively speaking, “ quiet people '', introverts. When, during distance education, they worked in & nbsp; cats with the & nbsp; teachers who trained them, they were able to open up. They didn't hesitate to sound dumber than everyone else. And & nbsp; began to move from & nbsp; three to & nbsp; five & raquo ;.

So it is not worth blaming the fact that the students relaxed from a distance, only the children themselves. It all depends on the professionalism and desire of the teacher. The easiest way is to send tasks over the internet and check them. Past experience & nbsp; & ndash; this is a lesson for everyone. After all, the same & nbsp; & ndash; a great opportunity to conduct further education classes in remote areas, where there aren't as many teachers as in big cities. Or teach a lesson if the teacher is sick. By the way, in the capital, at the onset of the pandemic, the Moscow electronic school portal was already working, where tens of thousands of course scripts, electronic textbooks were collected, virtual laboratories were collected. been organized and & nbsp; t. & Nbsp; d. Therefore, we managed to pull ourselves out of a difficult situation with the least amount of casualties. & Nbsp; & nbsp;

The director of the Ecole du Futur proposes to refrain from sharp and unambiguous assessments in & nbsp; the village of Bolshoye Isakovo, Kaliningrad region. Alexei Golubitsky … “ The pandemic and & nbsp; forced distance, uneven timing of the organization of the educational process in & nbsp; during the year could not but affect the & nbsp; academic results of our students, & nbsp; & ndash; the expert considers. & nbsp; & ndash; Yes, highly motivated high school students performed even better than expected by both & nbsp; us and & nbsp ;. For example, the results of current use in & nbsp; literature and & nbsp; chemistry say a lot about it. The average score in these subjects is higher than in recent years. In contrast, the students who were & nbsp; and who were therefore poorly motivated encountered even more difficulties. And & nbsp; drives & nbsp; some school children have become worse than before pandemic. & Nbsp;

In addition & nbsp; that it is impossible not to take into account the psychological state of children and & nbsp; parents, distracted by constant changes and & nbsp; restrictions. “ The level of anxiety and aggression that all participants in the educational process experience & nbsp; & ndash; and & nbsp; teachers, and & nbsp; parents, and & nbsp; especially schoolchildren, & nbsp; & ndash; Alexey Golubitsky notes. & nbsp; & ndash; I really hope that next summer will allow everyone to relax, calm down, regain their strength & nbsp; & ndash; and & nbsp; and & nbsp; with renewed vigor and hopefully face-to-face to start the & nbsp; next academic year in order to fill the gaps that & nbsp; some unmotivated students may have.

How to improve the exam?

People's Professor of Russia, professor at the State Pedagogical University. Herzen, professor of Grigory Perelman and & nbsp; Stanislav Smirnov (Fields Prize winner) Sergei Rukshin:

& ndash; When the Unified State Review was introduced, one of the main ones was the slogan of justice. It was believed that such an exam would provide the opportunity to assess the knowledge of all children in Russia under a single procedure. However, for over 20 years it has not become a reliable and understandable mechanism for final certification in schools and admission to university of graduates from provinces. Why? First, the exam tasks differ significantly from the school curriculum, and & nbsp; means that the ability to complete them correctly depends on & nbsp; a number of circumstances. In many regions, up to & nbsp; 70 & ndash; 80% of students who showed high results did not prepare in a & nbsp; school, but according to an individual program. Therefore, the Unified State Exam still relies on the & nbsp; financial well-being of the family, reserves in the area, ready to provide qualified teachers for & nbsp; preparing specifically for the Unified State Exam.

Second, the Unified State Exam almost completely reformatted school education. Today, school, especially in the 12th grade classes, has ceased to be a tool for knowledge transfer. This is due to the fact that in the & nbsp; high school, many usually go to & nbsp; home schooling: why waste energy on & nbsp; “ extra & # 39; & # 39;, as it is believed, materials when you need them only get ready for & nbsp; three or four 'necessary'. As a result, young people do not receive an education within the school. & Nbsp;

The Unified State Examination had a disastrous influence on admission to universities. Due to the fact that now you can apply directly to & nbsp; five universities for & nbsp; several specialties, to & nbsp; VOENMEH, for example, not those who dreamed of building rockets and & nbsp; const & shy; build motor jets, but & nbsp; those with enough points … I know firsthand that universities and institutes suffer tremendously from the loss of oriented children.

What to do? It is necessary to separate exam from school and school from exam. Today the school issues a certificate for & nbsp; examination results, which is conducted by an external organization & nbsp; & ndash; Rosobrnadzor. Why do we trust teachers to teach our kids for 11 years, but don't give them the right to take an exam so they are responsible for knowing the students with their reputation? I believe state certification in all core disciplines should be done by the school itself. A & nbsp; final exams, written and & nbsp; oral, & nbsp; & ndash; pass with & nbsp; taking into account the exact requirements approved by the ministry. The exam should only remain a pass for admission to the university. Such a proposal resonated in & nbsp; 2014 to & nbsp; Congress of the All-Russian Popular Front in & nbsp; Penza, where President Putin was also present. On several occasions the bill has been submitted to the State Duma. Now & nbsp; & ndash; the next step in the discussion. I hope & nbsp; we will have enough strength and & nbsp; sagacity to make the right decision.

At the same time, the average USE score upon admission into the & nbsp; pedagogical universities & nbsp; & ndash; 68 and & nbsp; does not reach the & nbsp; average Russian, who is 69. What can these teachers teach children if they themselves need to be taught? >

– The main problem is not a high or low passing mark for those who want to master this craft, but it is that the teachers in the schools are very overwhelmed. They operate at & nbsp; on average at & nbsp; 1.4 & nbsp; rate. And & nbsp; is often & nbsp; more. They don't have the time or the energy to improve their skills. Not formally a place to sit on and nbsp; course and & nbsp; get crusts, but & nbsp; really engage in self-education, every day think about & nbsp; new tasks for & nbsp; children, new approaches to & nbsp; learning. This is the main reason why teachers don't increase their qualifications and over time they lose them. And & nbsp; due to fatigue, exhaustion, they are unable to work effectively. & Nbsp;

We recently analyzed the state of universities. And & nbsp; educational really fell into the category & nbsp; rather weak. For many years in our country there was a negative selection: when the weaker guys could not enter strong universities, they went to pedagogy. And & nbsp; weak specialists have left these universities. Yes, in recent years, USE scores in good pedagogical universities are increasing, and & nbsp; in general, the demand of & nbsp; areas such as education and pedagogy among students is increasing. But before & nbsp; the situation is still not very good. And & nbsp; when such not very strong teachers come to l & nbsp; school, then either they drop out quickly or they have to meet again the level required by very busy and hard working senior colleagues. It is no coincidence that in our follow-up 23% of teachers who have worked in schools for a long time said that young people should not come to school.

But that doesn't mean everything is going so badly with us at school. You just need to understand calmly, scrupulously & nbsp; what is happening, without blaming parents, students or teachers.

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Two S7 employees detained on suspicion of commercial bribery

Law enforcement officers arrested S7 Airlines flight director Mansur Badrakov and his deputy on suspicion of commercial bribery. TASS writes about this with reference to an airline source.

The contact person for the agency said that the management of the company “ is providing maximum assistance in the investigation. & # 39; & # 39;

S7 Airlines flight director Mansur Badrakov was arrested in the Moscow region after receiving 1.5 million rubles for a job as the pilot of the first Russian airliner Airbus A320neo, the pilot was arrested in the act, the agency said by law enforcement. The accused in this case is also Badrakov's deputy.

According to the source, the commission of inquiry for the Moscow region will ask the court to choose the arrest of the suspects as a preventive measure.

h.8 art. 204 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation (“Commercial corruption on a particularly significant scale”). They plan to bring charges against them in the near future.

Previously, it was reported that the court detained the former vice-president of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation and head of the RANEPA department Konstantin Korishchenko, on suspicion of embezzlement large funds. The plot in the criminal case against the former vice-president of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation has not been disclosed. RANEPA representatives assure them that the allegations of the investigation against the professor have nothing to do with his activities at the university.

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Museum-reserve “Battle of Stalingrad”

Museum-Reserve & # 39; Battle of Stalingrad & # 39;

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Xth International Maritime Defense Fair in St. Petersburg

The 10th International Maritime Defense Show kicked off in St. Petersburg on June 23, attended by 285 companies from 28 countries around the world.

The event will be held at two venues until June 27. The IMDS-2021 exhibition is located on the territory of the Expoforum convention and exhibition center, ships, boats and ships will be on display at the berths of the St. Petersburg seaport passenger port. This year, the naval show takes place without visitors due to the unfavorable epidemiological situation, only participants of the show and delegations are allowed.

The first International Maritime Defense Show in St. Petersburg has took place in 2003 and has taken place every two years since then. & Nbsp;

Visitors near the anti-aircraft missile and artillery complex “Palma” at the JSC booth “KBtochmash im. AE Nudelman” © RIA Novosti/Alexandre Halperin

Model of the submarine “Amur-1650” on the stand of JSC “United Shipbuilding Corporation” © RIA Novosti/Alexander Galperin

Coastal tactical missile system” Rubezh-ME “and coastal mobile radio intelligence system” Monolit-B “(right) © RIA Novosti/Alexander Galperin

Product samples at the Tactical Missile Corporation (KTRV) booth © RIA Novosti/Alexander Galperin

Visitors to the United Shipbuilding Corporation JSC booth © RIA Novosti/Alexander Galperin

Members of the United Arab Emirates delegation at the stand of JSC “United Shipbuilding Corporation” © RIA Novosti/Alexander Galperin

A visitor at the Rosoboronexport booth © RIA Novosti/Alexander Galperin

Coastal Radio Reconnaissance Mobile Complex “Monolit-B” (right in the background) © RIA Novosti/Alexander Galperin

Model of the miniature submarine” Triton-2 “© RIA Novosti/Alexander Galperin

Visitors study models of boats and ships for the coast guard and law enforcement at the stand of JSC “United Shipbuilding Corporation” © RIA Novosti/Alexander Galperin

Trade fair attendees on the stand of Tactical Missile Corporation (KTRV) JSC © RIA Novosti/Alexander Galperin

Visitors near the anti-aircraft missile and artillery complex “Palma” at the stand of JSC “KBtochmash im. AE Nudelman” © RIA Novosti/Alexander Galperin

Model of the submarine “Amur-1650” on the stand of JSC “United Shipbuilding Corporation” © RIA Novosti/Alexander Galperin

Coastal tactical missile system” Rubezh-ME “and coastal mobile radio intelligence system” Monolit-B “(right) © RIA Novosti/Alexander Galperin

Product samples at the Tactical Missile Corporation (KTRV) booth © RIA Novosti/Alexander Galperin

Visitors to the stand of United Shipbuilding Corporation JSC © RIA Novosti/Alexander Galperin

Members of the United Arab Emirates delegation at the stand of JSC “United Shipbuilding Corporation” © RIA Novosti/Alexander Galperin

A visitor at the Rosoboronexport booth © RIA Novosti/Alexander Galperin

Mobile coastal radio reconnaissance complex “Monolit-B” (right in the background) © RIA Novosti/Alexander Galperin

Model of the miniature submarine” Triton-2 “© RIA Novosti/Alexander Galperin

Visitors study models of ships and ships for the coast guard and law enforcement at the stand of the United Shipbuilding Corporation JSC © RIA Novosti/Alexander Galperin

Participants of the show at stand of JSC “Corporation Tactical Missile Armament” (KTRV) © RIA Novosti/Alexander Galperin

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Chemical chaos: control of hazardous industries in the Volga region will be tightened

Last week Samara hosted a meeting of the Security Council of the Russian Federation on environmental security issues. Special attention in the & nbsp; report of the Secretary of the Security Council Nikolai Patrushev was given to companies belonging to the & nbsp; Hazard class 1-3, the activity of which, accordingly, carries a potential technological and environmental hazard and, therefore, requires special attention from authorities and regulatory authorities.

Where is the corporate responsibility?

The situation in the & nbsp; Volga Federal District, where the largest number of industrial plants is concentrated, including & nbsp; linked to & nbsp; 1-3 hazard class, in the production of which chemicals are used, leaves much to be desired. In the past three years, 10 major man-made accidents have occurred in the area. And & nbsp; with & nbsp; every year, the problems of ensuring environmental safety and & nbsp; environmental protection become more and more acute, and & nbsp; their & nbsp; unresolved negatively affect & nbsp; the quality of life of the population & nbsp; and as a result leads to & nbsp; increased social tension.

“ The technological load on the environment is the main factor determining the ecological situation in the district, which in a number of areas of the district remains difficult. The level of emissions into the atmosphere of pollutants in the neighborhood remains high & nbsp; & mdash; nearly 3.5 & nbsp; million tons & mdash; and & nbsp; represents 14% of & nbsp; total emissions in the & nbsp; country, & nbsp; & mdash; noted in & nbsp; his speech to & nbsp; a meeting with & nbsp; participation of representatives of federal control departments and & nbsp; authorized representative of the President of Russia in & nbsp; Volga Federal District Igor Komarov, Secretary of the Security Council of the Russian Federation & nbsp; Nikolai Patrushev. & mdash; & nbsp; Until & nbsp; & nbsp; in & nbsp; all cities correctly monitor atmospheric air. & # 39; & # 39;

Will the Volga take it all?

No less depressing is the pollution of ground and surface water. As a rule, industrial companies and public services are the main perpetrators. Often the cause of pollution is the reluctance of companies to comply with industrial and environmental safety measures. Organizations, making a lot of money, are in no rush to bear the financial costs of switching to modern technologies.

Quite often companies, alas, don't even have their own local treatment facilities, as a result, an explosive mixture of industrial waste enters & nbsp; in rivers, groundwater and & nbsp; from there & mdash; in & nbsp; the main artery of the most densely populated district in Russia: the Volga.

In 2020 alone, 44 cases of extremely high pollution of surface water with chemicals were recorded in the territory of the Volga Federal District. In the arrondissement, an anti-record was set for the volume of untreated wastewater discharges, which exceeded 2 billion cubic meters. mr. Naturally, all this, therefore, affects the & nbsp; safe drinking water, which residents of the Volga region are obliged to use.

Photo by: Kremneva Julia.

Exclusion zones

But & nbsp; the county's biggest problem & mdash; elimination of accumulated damage to the environment.

“ Work on & nbsp; many objects of accumulated damage, and & nbsp; their & nbsp; in & nbsp; there are 267, are carried out without prior studies of the chemical composition of the waste, without designing works and & nbsp; their & nbsp; scientific and technical support, & nbsp; & mdash; made a & nbsp; review in & nbsp; address of officials the Secretary of the Security Council. & mdash; & nbsp; This practice not only prevents the completion of the liquidation work on time, but & nbsp; and & nbsp; contributes to the further pollution of the environment with harmful substances. & # 39; & # 39;

There are such areas of contamination, for example, on the territory of the former phosphorus plant (now & mdash; “ chemical plant '') in & nbsp; the town of Togliatti in & nbsp; Samara region and & nbsp; & nbsp; 37 & nbsp; kilometers from Nizhny Novgorod, to & nbsp; Dzerzhinsk area “ Plexiglas & # 39; & # 39;). Environmentalists in both regions have long sought more drastic measures to address the problems. However, for now, as Security Council Secretary Nikolai Patrushev rightly noted at the last meeting, the negative impact on ecology in these territories does that increase.

The reason why environmentalists see everything in & nbsp; these & nbsp; same chemical companies located on & nbsp; these sites & nbsp; and, alas, continuing to treat nature as a consumer. Signs of this & mdash; lack of local treatment facilities, air filtration systems and nbsp; control of & nbsp; broadcasts in & nbsp; atmosphere and & nbsp; just reluctance of companies to invest in & nbsp; industrial safety and & nbsp; environmental.

AiF I have already analyzed the situation several times, and & nbsp; more precisely, the attitude of regulatory authorities, of which, in fact, compliance with the law in & nbsp; particularly dangerous enterprises of danger class 1-3 depends on & nbsp; the example of the coagulant production plants belonging to the Metakhim holding; : LLC “ Aqua Reagent '' (Dzerzhinsk) and & nbsp; LLC Alchem ​​(Togliatti).

Write letters

“ We regularly write appeals to & nbsp; various regulatory authorities on & nbsp; the situation that developed in & nbsp; & bdquo; Chemical plant & ldquo ;. Many companies have fallen into & nbsp; our Field of View, LLC & bdquo; Alchem ​​& ldquo; in & nbsp; including. We have questions about the & nbsp; local cleaning, which according to the idea of ​​& nbsp; should be, but & nbsp; not & nbsp; the fact that there is. As a result, all production waste can be dumped into the general system, get into the ground, there are also questions and questions about the storage of highly hazardous substances. And & nbsp; then all this & bdquo; wealth & ldquo;, perhaps, floats in & nbsp; our Zhigulevskoe Sea, the main reservoir of the & nbsp; Volga. That & nbsp; same & bdquo; Alchem ​​& ldquo ;, which has been around for over 20 & nbsp; ans (!), as some controllers tell us, only in & nbsp; last year, after calling on the & nbsp; ; public prosecutor's office and & nbsp; threats of complete closure, began to do something in & nbsp; the field of ecology. And & nbsp; where has everyone, excuse me, looked before? In my opinion, it all comes down to simply the reluctance of business owners to spend money one way or another for environmental safety and for one. formal approach to control over the work of particularly dangerous companies. They say the territory and & nbsp; is recognized as ecologically dangerous, so why bother, nature will take it all … And & nbsp; after all, it's not the right of companies to comply with the law, but & nbsp; an obligation, and & nbsp; this should not happen & nbsp; after the threat to shut down production. I don't & nbsp; more & nbsp; and & nbsp; on & nbsp; the fact that on the territory of & bdquo; Chemical plant & ldquo; phosphorus burns regularly. Every summer, toxic smog blankets the city of fires. We have questions in the & nbsp; part of the purification of emissions in & nbsp; atmosphere and & nbsp; to & nbsp; business operation, and & nbsp; to & nbsp; to & nbsp; same & bdquo; Alchem ​​& ldquo ;, already included in the blacklist of & nbsp; & bdquo; & ldquo; environmentalists & raquo ;, & nbsp; & mdash; Stanislav Volokhin , chairman of the council of the Samara regional branch of the All-Russian public movement “ Russian Ecological Movement '' & # 39; expresses his opinion.

Brothers in & nbsp; Cataclysms

A typical situation develops and & nbsp; to & nbsp; Dzerzhinsk, where on & nbsp; the territory of the eastern industrial zone “ Plexiglas & # 39; & # 39; located dozens of companies, many of which are particularly dangerous, using in their production, like LLC “ Aqua-Reagent '', toxic substances.

“ In general, a feature of the territory of the Dzerzhinsk urban district is a high level of environmental pollution from production and consumption, & nbsp; & mdash; the famous environmental expert Elena Kolpakova comment on the situation … & mdash; & nbsp; In the & nbsp; chemical composition of groundwater, we found more than once an increased content of sulfates, nitrates, iron, the presence of organic compounds and & nbsp; special components of industrial pollution, and & nbsp; also heavy metals and & nbsp; organochlorine compounds. The soils of the & nbsp; Eastern industrial zone have been intensively polluted for many decades in & nbsp; as a result of leaks from & nbsp; waste ponds, and & nbsp; therefore, they are now a secondary source of groundwater pollution and & nbsp; surface waters, which literally reach the Oka within a few kilometers.

To admit, in the case of & nbsp; with the aforementioned detention of 'chemists', which fell into the field of vision of the & nbsp; environmentalists from two regions at once, it's really scary at the number of violations that the controllers don't have & nbsp; seen for a long time, which allowed companies to pollute and & nbsp; without this nature exhausted with waste from the production of coagulant.

And & nbsp; who else will defend & nbsp; nature protection?

And & nbsp; without & nbsp; to have waited, alas, actions of & nbsp; from regional ministries, in & nbsp; whose powers include the control of & nbsp; environmental safety, and & nbsp; also the main supervisory body & dash; Rosprirodnadzor, & mdash; AiF journalists in & nbsp; September 2020, independently taking soil and wastewater samples from & nbsp; these companies, conducted a study in a & nbsp; certified laboratory at & nbsp; Moscow.

September 23 & nbsp; September 2020, the results were received. Bottom line & nbsp; & mdash; MPC in & nbsp; water and & nbsp; ground on & nbsp; LLC territory “ Alchem ​​'' for & nbsp; some indicators are largely outdated. And & nbsp; it's hardly a legacy of Phosphorus, as many might think. Experts have studied the material and & nbsp; arrived at the & nbsp; conclusion that & nbsp; PH in & nbsp; water instead of the acceptable value 6 & nbsp; is 3.3. The sulfate ion content is exceeded & nbsp; 4 & nbsp; time. Both of these indicators can have a direct impact on the production of coagulants. In addition, the & nbsp; soil contains more than & nbsp; three times more lead, zinc and & nbsp; there is a significant presence of mercury.

The result of the MPC in & nbsp; water and & nbsp; sol LLC “ Aqua-Reagent '' are also largely outdated. The standards of PH & nbsp; in sewage are exceeded by & nbsp; 2.3 & nbsp; time. The sulfate ion content is exceeded & nbsp; 7 times. In addition, here the experts found the content of chlorides, which is above the norm by & nbsp; 2.8 & nbsp; time. And zinc, lead and & nbsp; mercury were also found.

All results have been sent to & nbsp; Volga Interregional Environmental Prosecutor's Office, and & nbsp; from there & mdash; in the control structures of & nbsp;, which, as it turned out after almost 8 & nbsp; months, do not really have and nbsp; began to verify companies and & nbsp; addressed the issue of & nbsp; >For some reason, only the Ministry of Natural Resources of the Nizhny Novgorod region went to the scene of the events to take research material. The result, I admit, amazed both & nbsp; us and the & nbsp; environmentalists: the content of sulfates and & nbsp; chlorides in & nbsp; water is over 25,000 & nbsp; mg per & nbsp; liter (!), indicates & nbsp; high concentrations of mineral salts.

“ These are compounds that affect the & nbsp; PH and & nbsp; dry residue, which significantly affects the composition of the water. A low pH value characterizes the natural water sample studied as strongly acidic, which is usually the result of the hydrolysis of heavy metal salts. Dry residue & nbsp; & mdash; it is the content of all dissolved substances, the main part of which is Mg2 +, Na +, K +, Ca2 +, HCO3-, SO42-, Cl-. The analysis of dry residues makes it possible to establish the degree of total pollution of wastewater with organic matter and & nbsp; minerals. With a value of this parameter greater than 1200 & nbsp; mg/dm3 (the lowest water quality class & mdash; V), in & nbsp; in this case, even & bdquo; worse & nbsp; quality class V & ldquo; of & nbsp; ecological positions. In this case, further studies of the pollutant content are necessary, & nbsp; & mdash; emphasizes environmental expert Elena Kolpakova.

Why is everything so formal?

Nevertheless & nbsp; less in & nbsp; Dzerzhinsk water for & nbsp; the presence of compounds of heavy metal salts for some reason does not & nbsp; steel and & nbsp; the results of the control were only satisfied with a fine on the & nbsp; director, not even & nbsp; on & nbsp; a moral person. And when calculating the damage to the environment, controllers usually didn't even care. In the region of & nbsp; Samara & nbsp; and & nbsp; absolutely calm and & nbsp; smooth surface.

The environmental prosecutor's office even sees the actions of regulatory authorities as a refusal to go to & nbsp; check out these organizations.

& nbsp; In the & nbsp; approval of an unforeseen recording & nbsp; in relation to these organizations, a refusal was made of & nbsp; communication with & nbsp; non-compliance with the requirements for & nbsp; But & nbsp; these violations of management requirements and & nbsp; have not been eliminated. In & nbsp; as part of & nbsp; violations of the legislation on & nbsp; state control, the heads of said interregional departments of Rosprirodnadzor made representations & raquo ;, & mdash; said the senior assistant to the prosecutor of the Volga Interregional Environmental Prosecutor's Office Maria Sidorova.

Now the prosecutor's office is forced to force officials to do their jobs in their entirety & nbsp; as it should be, not & nbsp; only with & nbsp; establish the sources and & nbsp; the extent of the pollution, but and with & nbsp; accountability of legal persons with & nbsp; subsequent payment of damages and & nbsp; elimination of consequences.

Offset & nbsp; neutral

After the Security Council meeting “ AiF & # 39; & # 39; visited both regions. It should be noted that since & nbsp; last year at & nbsp; Togliatti carried out a lot of work in the territory of the old factory “ Phosphorus ''.

& mdash; & nbsp; In & nbsp; 2019, Togliatti administration announced the site of the former Phosphorus OJSC emergency threat area. This allowed the Municipality to allocate their own funds for the assessment of the current situation, in order to really understand the depth of the problem. In 2020, SamSTU specialists developed a feasibility study to allow us to carry out work on the elimination of pollution hot spots in the territory of the former OJSC Phosphorus. A wide range of works and surveys have been completed, a comprehensive survey of storage sites for waste containing phosphorus and other types of waste has been carried out; preparation of documentation for the certification and certification of such wastes; developed technical solutions for the use and neutralization of phosphorus and waste containing phosphorus; prepared a technical mission and & nbsp; estimate for & nbsp; development of design and surveying work, & nbsp; & mdash; The mayor of Togliatti Nikolay Renz explains the current situation. & mdash; & nbsp; We & nbsp; have already approved the layout of the land undergoing reclamation in & nbsp; Rosimushchestvo. This gives us the opportunity to carry out a topographical survey of the territory, to highlight all of the 11 plots on which there is either phosphorus itself or waste containing phosphorus.

All of this will allow the territory of the ancient OJSC of Phosphorus to be included in the & nbsp; State register of objects of accumulated damage to the environment and & nbsp; claim & nbsp; federal money, which will go to & nbsp; liquidation of hazardous waste. The & nbsp; clear position on this issue of the governor of the Samara region Dmitry Azarov , which also during the & nbsp; last meeting of the Security Council, raised the issue of & nbsp; contaminated territory.

And & nbsp; who is in the & nbsp; law ?

However, it is noteworthy that during all these years the beneficiaries of Khimzavod actively sold & nbsp; what was left of & nbsp; property of Phosphorus. Yes, they & nbsp; land they couldn't claim, it's federal, but & nbsp; here are the buildings and & nbsp; structures, on the basis of which companies such as the & nbsp; even “ Alchem ​​'' , & nbsp; have been operating for many years, & nbsp; enough. And & nbsp; At this time, the mayor's office has started to question the legality of the activities of these organizations.

“ I also want to bring to your attention that the Togliatti administration intends to determine which companies and & nbsp; organizations operate on the territory of the former OJSC & bdquo; Phosphorus & ldquo; and & nbsp; on & nbsp; on what basis. In this work, I consider it necessary to involve the regulatory authorities and & nbsp; first of all & nbsp; & mdash; the prosecutor's office, we intend to verify the legality of the reconstruction of buildings and structures, the construction of new ones, because all this had to be obtained the appropriate authorization and agreement with the & nbsp; administration of Togliatti, but, as far as we already know, & nbsp; the absolute majority of these documents do not, and & nbsp; therefore, the legality of the place of production is under a big question & raquo ;, & nbsp; & mdash; the Togliatti leader summed up his position constructively.

Such actions on the side of the local authorities are quite justified, because as soon as the intention was announced to include the territory in the list of areas of accumulated environmental damage, many of those whose legality of the production is now surveyed have already started to dream of & nbsp; get from the federal budget; multi-million dollar compensation for & nbsp; their property. And & nbsp; Togliatti town hall wants to spend money for & nbsp; ecology, and & nbsp; not & nbsp; for & nbsp; enriching someone.

We hope that very soon a similar path will be followed by & nbsp; in & nbsp; administration of Dzerzhinsk, where a big job, in & nbsp; including legal.

Enough selected approaches

And & nbsp; what to & nbsp; regulatory bodies, then, as stated during the & nbsp; meeting of the Security Council in & nbsp; Samara in & nbsp; Last year, only Rosprirodnadzor in the Volga Federal District identified more than one thousand two hundred violations of environmental law. This means that they can work and & nbsp; attracting companies to responsibility.

But, as Nikolai Patrushev rightly noted, the crime situation in the Volga Federal District in the field of ecology remains difficult.

“ I have named only a part of the environmental challenges and threats that are noted in the regions of the Volga Federal District. At the same time, I would like to emphasize once again that the elimination of the accumulated damage to the environment, the reduction in the level of pollution of the air, water resources, soil, the solution of waste disposal and recycling problems & mdash; all this is a prerequisite for improving the quality of life and strengthening the health of our fellow citizens. In addition, the violations of environmental legislation identified in the & nbsp; district create an increased threat to environmental security and & nbsp; require additional measures to be taken & nbsp; & mdash; underlined the secretary of the Security Council.

However, as stated 8 & nbsp; months from & nbsp; the day of the release of the material “ Dangerous production. Chemical factories are suspected of & nbsp; non-compliance with security measures & nbsp; from & nbsp; from the side of all controllers to & nbsp; there is still some indecision in & nbsp; with regard to the companies of the holding company “ Metakhim & # 39; & # 39 ;.

PS & nbsp; I would love to as local prosecutors, in collaboration with the & nbsp; Attorney General's Office, include & nbsp; why all those who are responsible for & nbsp; compliance with the law in & nbsp; similar procedures in & nbsp; Volga Federal District, because & nbsp; for decades has not stubbornly & nbsp; noticed violations in the & nbsp; companies mentioned, including & nbsp; those about which we & nbsp; & nbsp; have not yet but & nbsp; about & nbsp; which are known and & nbsp; for a reason & nbsp; for a reason & nbsp; again & nbsp; (all facts are given in & nbsp; above material & mdash; ed. note). And & nbsp; we & nbsp; will continue to monitor & nbsp; the situation in the & nbsp; Volga region.

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The vet explained how to help the animals survive the heat

Not only humans, but also animals are struggling to survive the intense heat that is settling in central Russia. How To Make A Pet's Life Easier on sweltering days, he said in an interview with “ 360 '' veterinarian of the highest category Mikhail Shelyakov.

According to the expert, it is best to walk with the dogs in the early morning or late evening when the heat has subsided. Make sure you take a water bottle and bowl with you for the pet to drink at all times. If possible, it's best to walk without a muzzle, Shelyakov advised. He explained that an open mouth and protruding tongue help the dog to shed excess heat, but the muzzle interferes with this.

Speaking of small animals, the vet noted that cells with rodents should never be left under the scorching sun.

He also reminded that cats should be left in the fresh air in hot weather. In this case, the windows must have special nets. In addition, four-legged animals should have an unlimited supply of water and the ability to roam freely.

Earlier it became known that a bill was presented to the State Duma, which determines the allowed number of animals in an apartment. The authors of the initiative & nbsp; also propose to introduce mandatory animal registration, which will help return lost pets to owners.

Meanwhile, in Moscow on June 23, the maximum temperature of 1948 was beaten. At 2:00 p.m., the air in the Russian capital warmed to 34.7 degrees. This indicator was recorded at the weather station VDNKh.

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In the suburbs, they can start to enter transport only by a QR code

Plot The third wave of coronavirus in Russia

The authorities of the Moscow region may make travel on public transport accessible only by a QR code, which will only be issued to citizens protected against the coronavirus.

TASS writes about this with reference to the Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Moscow region & ndash; Minister of Health of the region Svetlana Strigunkova.

The new rules could be introduced from July 1.

Strigunkova expressed hope that all measures taken earlier will reduce the rate of the spread of COVID -19. QR codes will be introduced at the initiative of the regional health ministry, if the expected effect cannot be achieved without it, the speaker noted.

Earlier, AiF.ru wrote about how cafes and restaurants in Moscow region will operate in relation to the new restrictions.

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Ministry of Education and Science: the new academic year in universities will start on September 1

The new academic year at Russian universities is expected to start on September 1. This was announced by the head of the Russian Ministry of Education and Science, Valery Falkov, reports TASS. & Nbsp;

According to the Minister, the decision on the format of the training will be taken in August, based on the epidemiological situation in the country and the opinion of experts. & Nbsp; & nbsp;

Falkov also mentioned the intention of the department to discuss next week with rectors of higher education institutions the recommendations of the Board of Rectors of Moscow and Moscow Region Universities on admission to full-time courses only vaccinated students & nbsp; or who have certificates of the presence of antibodies, as well as documents on contraindications to vaccination … For the rest of the students it is proposed to organize online courses. & Nbsp;

At the same time, the Ministry of Health announced the vaccination schedule for students against the coronavirus. & Nbsp;

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Deep dive. Russia is developing a small nuclear submarine

Russian design office & # 39; Malachite & # 39; has started to develop two projects of small multipurpose submarines – the nuclear “ Gorgon & # 39; & # 39; and the small non-nuclear submarine (NNS) Serval. AiF.ru & nbsp; found out what is known about these submarines.

The builder reports that development is done on initiative, technical proposals have already been made and the appearance of two submarines has been determined. This is a removable modular design for placing a payload, which includes weapons, self-defense equipment, group submarine propulsion systems and unmanned underwater vehicles . The full package will depend on the specific tasks and will be determined before setting sail.

The Gorgon submarine, like all ships with nuclear facilities, is an almost fully classified project. There is no data on the features and purpose of this device. & Nbsp; According to experts, it could be a modernization or a continuation of the Losharik project. In 2019, this nuclear-powered offshore vehicle, located at the Northern Fleet training ground in the Kola Bay area of ​​the Barents Sea, caught fire. The fire killed 14 submariners. & Nbsp;

The Russian nuclear submarine AS-12 Losharik. Photo: Commons.wikimedia.org

We know a little more about the submarine P-750B Serval. This is the first submarine to feature an anaerobic engine, which means it doesn't need oxygen to operate. Hence, it does not need any air trapping. Length – 66 meters, width – seven. Cruising range is 4.3 thousand miles, range is 30 days. The submarine will carry Caliber cruise missiles, as well as torpedoes and mines.

Desk “ Malachite '' previously engaged in the development of small submarines. He developed the small coastal submarine Piranha, its modified version Piranha-T, as well as the small submarines P-550 and P-650E. Their displacement varies from 220 to 720 cubic meters, and the maximum immersion depth & mdash; from 200 to 300 meters. The slowest of the Malachite mini-submarines & mdash; Piranha & mdash; swims at a speed of 6.6 knots, and the fastest & mdash; P-550 & mdash; at a speed of 15.5 knots. & nbsp;

Small submarines can participate in sabotage operations and imperceptibly come closer to enemy targets than large diesel-electric and nuclear submarines can. They also have other advantages. For example, they are faster and cheaper to build and can be transported by train or plane, while large ships follow independently to the desired point.

Small submarines are needed not only by the military, but also by research agencies and coastal services.

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What does the “two-person” command mean and where does it come from?

Aty-two & mdash; it's an interjection that serves as an order to set the beat. For example, it is pronounced when walking or rowing. AiF.ru found out what the original versions of this turnover are.

Where does this interjection come from?

One of the popular versions of the etymology of the “ two-way '' interjection & mdash; derived from Swedish ett (“un”) and tv & aring; ('Two'). Its author is the poet, prose writer and translator Sergey Petrov . He presented his interpretation of the emergence of Russian-language circulation at the Second All-Union Scientific Conference on the Study of the Scandinavian Countries and Finland, which took place held in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg) in September 1965.

In his presentation, Petrov suggested that “at least two” entered the Russian language in the pre-Petrine era and came from the Swedish team ett, tv & aring; tre (“ one, two, three ''). In his opinion, this happened after the siege of the Swedish-conquered fortress in Ladoga (later Staraya Ladoga) by Russian soldiers led by Governor Ivan Saltykov. After the fortress surrendered by the enemy, many Swedes became instructors for the Russian army. Our soldiers were theirs and could adopt the word “to”.

What other versions of the original “ at-two '' does it exist?

There is also a phonetic explanation for the origin of at-two. It was proposed by a Russian Scandinavian philologist, professor in the Department of Scandinavian and Dutch Philology at Boris Zharov State University of St. Petersburg at the same scientific conference in Leningrad in 1965. He wrote about it in his scientific article 'SV Petrov and the discussion of Swedish etymology' in two ''.

Zharov noted that the word “ to & # 39; & # 39; has never been used alone, but has always been part of the 'twosome' turnover. In addition, interjection has never been an officially recognized command in the language of Russian military personnel. For the official count of steps “ in the leg '' used the Russian words “ one, two, three, four. & # 39; & # 39; When the pace was set, the unit commander reduced command to “ one … one … one … two. & # 39; & # 39; According to Zharov, with several repetitions of the “ one … two '' count the sound “ … aST2 '' appeared. Those who listened to this command perceived it to be something like 'one-two. & # 39; & # 39;

Источник aif.ru